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Showing posts from April, 2017


Simple steps on how to calculate the Proportion of Lye (Caustic Soda) to different oils For soap makers.

Saponification is the chemical process where a lye  or caustic soda ( Sodium hydroxide) or Potassium hydroxide (Caustic potash) reacts with oils to form soap. Like I said in the previous post , for soap to be formed, it must undergo the process of saponification. I also mentioned that any oil can be used to combined with lye to form soap. Each type  oil has a different proportion of lye needed to saponify it. There's need for consistency in measurement. Never measure lye, oils and water in volume but rather it should by weight. When using weight, do not mix the method for example grammes and ounce at the same time. If you are using grammes, use grammes throughout your measurements. If you are using ounce, stick to ounce throughout your measurements.

The principle Behind Soap making

After this post, you will not lack what to incorporate into your soap to make it unique. A soap is simply a salt of fatty acid. The fatty acid here is your Oil. Remember oils are liquid on room temperature while fats are solids at room temperature so they are used interchangeably.

For Perfume Lovers, Tell us your experience and challenge.

Well, I noticed in the previous week that I had tons of traffic from  perfume lovers from different countries especially Nigeria and the US followed by Kenya. I have come back to create this post for those that have tried out their perfume formula. We will like you to share your experiences or challenge on the comment section below. If you have any observation, problem or new methods or discovery, please also share it with us.

Simple Steps on how to make tooth Powder

There are many ways of achieving the same thing. Tooth powder is an alternative for toothpaste. With these simple steps, you can start your tooth powder business. You can use it by Simply wetting  your toothbrush and dipping it into the  powder or  carefully squirting  the  powder  onto a wet toothbrush.  Lets get cracking.........

Simple Steps on How to make Starch from Cassava or potato

Starch is a very important source of sugars in our diet. We get starch when we eat  corn , potatoes,  wheat  and rice etc. But we can also transform this food to get starch handy instead of digesting them. It is  Used  as food additive. As an additive for food processing, food  starches  are typically used as thickeners and stabilizers in foods such as puddings, custards, soups, sauces, gravies, pie fillings, and salad dressings, and to make noodles and pastas.    It is also used on clothes. The most common reason people use  starch on clothes  is for aesthetics, it adds beauty to clothes. A starched, pressed shirt looks professional and clean. Doesn't  it?

Simple Steps on how to make Rice Milk

Rice milk  is a grain  milk made  from  rice . It is mostly  made  from fermented  brown  rice  and can be either sweetened or unsweetened. The sweetness in most  rice milk  varieties is generated by a natural enzymatic process that cleaves the carbohydrates into sugars, especially glucose.  This also is another non diary alternative especially for those with lactose intolerance and for vegans . Apart from that, it is a cool and simple beverage anyone can make at the comfort of your home. Lets get going..........

Simple steps on how to make Groundnut Milk (peanut Milk)

Peanut milk  is a non-dairy beverage created using  peanuts  and water. Recipe variations include salt, sweeteners, and grains. It does not contain any  lactose  and is therefore suitable for people with  lactose intolerance  and for vegans. Let's get going.............

Simple Steps on how to make Kunu Drink

Kunu is a popular drink in Nigeria mostly the Northern part of Nigeria. It is made from fermented millet. Nigeria is  the second largest producer of Millet outside India. About 5 millions tonnes are produced every year as estimated by FAO. Millet has a decent amount of nutrients. In India, it is used to make alcoholic beverage but this tutorial covers how to make non - alcoholic beverage from millet.

Simple steps on how to make Yoghurt

Yoghurt is one of the oldest fermented foods which is   widely recognized as a healthy food.  Yogurt  is a milk product obtained by fermentation of milk specific microorganisms, which shall be viable, active and abundant in the product. The overall process is called  Lactic acid fermentation a process whereby  milk is converted into yogurt. Let's get going.......

Simple Steps on how to make Zobo Drink

Zobo  is a Nigerian beverage  which derived its name from the Hausa  language. The drink is made from    Roselle plant  flowers  a specie of  Hibiscus . It has different kinds of names in different parts of the world. If you are not a nigerian and you're not familiar with the name, search for roselle plant on google to know how your country calls it to give you a clue of what we are about to do.

How is Soya beans powdered milk produced?

The importance of soya milk and it nutritious content can not be overemphasized. The advantage of the powdered soy milk over the liquid one is the longevity. The powdered milk has a shelf life of one year if packaged properly unlike the liquid which does not last for  more than 24 hours unless it is enhance with the provision of a refrigerator and stand by light. With the powder soy milk, one does not have to do it over and over again especially if it is for home use. If you want to start with this as your business, get a company to supply you with containers, then get NAFDAC approval, register your business and start with all amount of strength you've got/ Lets get going..........

Simple Steps on how to make Coconut oil Soap

Today we are going to learn how to make coconut oil soap. The first step is to get your mold ready. So that after the mixing you can turn your soap into the mold. The next thing you need is a bucket lets say 20 litres paint container. Remember to put on your safety equipment. i.e  goggles for the eyes, mask for the nose, and gloves. Also, keep vinegar around in case any chemical spill on you, you can apply  vinegar  on that spot and it will neutralize the burns. You also need a mixer but if you don’t have, you can use a very long stick to stir. It also recommended that you have a thermometer so that you mix things together at the proper temperature so that your bars come out right.

Simple steps on how to produce Harpic toilet cleaner

  Harpic  is the  brand name  of a toilet bowl cleaner. It has been found to be effective in removing  stains  on tiles, lavatories and  bath etc. It is highly recommended that you put on gloves, protect your eyes  with goggles to avoid spillage from highly concentrated acid. Be very careful, keep chemical far away from children. Most of the chemicals here are very corrosive.

Simple steps on how to make Izal

Izal  is one of the common disinfectant used regularly at home,schools, hospital, and different place. It  is highly concentrated and very effective when used in toilet cleaning, floor tiles and other surface. Below are simple steps on how you can make izal disinfectant.  To avoid wastage,  you can divide it by two to produce in 5  litres . The measurement for this izal is for 10litres. If you want to produce in large quantities, multiply each measurement by the amount you want to produce. You can also click here to learn how to make dettol liquid antiseptic. 

Simple Steps on how to make Dettol

Dettol is a popular antiseptic d isinfectant liquid that  removes harmful microbial  organisms, prevents  infections caused by cuts and scratches and can also be used as household disinfectant on home surfaces and in laundry. You can do it your self by following these simple steps below. If you want to  do it in  small quantity,  divide the whole measurement of  the material by 2 (to give you 2.5 Liters) or if you want to increase the quantity  for commercial purpose, you can multiply 5 liters  by the amount you want to produce. The measurements below are for 5 liters  of dettol. 

Rules for making your perfume formula

Note taking or Recording: This is one of the most important thing you must do in order to be consistent in your formula and result. You may likely not remember the measurement you took, so it is absolutely necessary to keep proper record of all the amount of essential oil and alcohol you used in making your perfume formula. There’s 90% possibility that you may never produce the same formula the rest of your life, if you don’t record.

How to calculate percentage for your Perfume formula

You don’t need a degree in maths to calculate percentage for your perfume Formula . If you are new to percentage calculation in perfume or you don’t know why you are calculating percentage, please visit the previous post on the types of perfume for a background.

How to Make your Perfume last long ( Using Fixative)

In the previous post, we discuss on types of perfume . In that post we saw how the composition of fragrance to alcohol can affect the longevity of the perfume which in turn determines the type of perfume. What if you put the highest percentage of fragrance to alcohol and it still does not last? The next step is to use what perfumers have been using for donkey years. It is called fixative and that is what today’s post is all about.

Types of Perfume

Today I am talking about  types of perfume. Lot of folks don't really know the different  types of perfume. Have you ever wondered why some perfume do last longer than others? Some last for three hours, some 5 hours, some 24 hours, some even to an extended period of time. Each of these types of perfume will be illustrated and the percentage of alcohol to fragrance or essential oil will be provided.

How to Make Body Cream (Method 2)

Creams are for caring the skin of the face, hands, and other parts of the body. Product forms may be creams, milky lotions and gels. The purposes are diverse and include repairing the skin from damage, moisturizing the skin, whitening the skin and blotches, and protecting the skin from ultraviolet rays.  The oily components, which give the efficacy and determine the feel of use, may be carbohydrates, esters, and higher alcohols. Nonionic surfactant and fatty acids are mainly used to emulsify the oily components. Polymers are added to stabilize the product form. Polyhydric alcohols are for moisturizing, and alkalis are combined to neutralize fatty acids

Easter: He is the reason for the season

As we celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from death, let us take inventory of how far we’ve gone since we met Christ. It is the greatest privilege for the almighty God to step in flesh to redeem mankind. We were condemned and lost in sin but  His loving kindness and mercy saved us.  The grace of God reached down to us and we’ve got to accept it by faith. As we commemorate this day, remember He was wounded for your transgression, He was bruised for your iniquities, the chastisement of your peace was upon his shoulder, with His stripes you were healed.

Let's Go to the Perfume Laboratory (Sample Recipe)

I am writing this post in reaction to my page viewers request for a Sample formula for perfume. I will provide samples of different blend of fragrance or essential oils for you to  try out.  Things to note: Like I said earlier in the previous post , for you to have a signatory perfume or customize perfume, you must carryout experiment. And in this experiment, recording is very very essential because you may never get the same result again in your life time. That is if you did not record the measurement. You must have a pen and a paper by your side to take all the measurements and the  results.

Perfume Oil to Alcohol ratio

Homemade Mosquito Repellant Liquid

Living with insects  is not only dangerous to health but also one of the health hazards. These tiny creatures have sent so many to their early grave.  Like the popular one we know in Africa called mosquito. This little monster has let to so many deaths in Africa and it is still slaying both young and old. Why do you want to   live with this harmful monster.  Why not take this golden opportunity to prepare a homemade insecticide.  It will save you a lot of money. An  insecticide as we all know   is a substance used to kill insects. They include ovicides and larvicides used against insect eggs and larvae, respectively. You can make insecticide yourself and even for commercial purpose using the following simple steps.

How to make neutral shoe polish

We all know how good it is to polish shoes especially with good polish. Today i want to share with you how neutral polish is made. Neutral shoe polish can be used to polish a wide variety of shoes both black, brown, white in fact any colour. Its beauty comes from the shiny nature it leaves on shoes when applied. With small amount of cash, one can make a simple but high quality homemade neutral polish.

How to make Vaseline at Home

Vaseline is popularly used for babies and  can also  be used as a lubricant, it can also be used as a moisture insulator for local skin conditions characterized by tissue dehydration.  It is used to soften rough skin,it is used as hair cream and it can also be used for preventing cold and cough when applied topically ( the chest preferably).

How do I make my own body cream?

It is no more news that you can do anything yourself only if you are willing. Gone are the days were only one or two companies monopolise the way things are made and produced. Below are simple steps on how you can make your own body cream. No special training is  require. Only follow the steps given below and you'll find it useful and rewarding. lets get cracking........

How to make Detergent (OMO)

A detergent is a water-soluble cleansing agent that combines with impurities and dirt to make them more soluble and differs from soap in not forming a scum with the salts in hard water.  OMO detergent comprise concentrated and hypoallergenic powdered detergents and powdered detergents designed specifically for use with white or colored laundry. 

How to make laundry bar soap for business in Nigeria

Laundry soaps are soaps used for washing  clothes. From these simple steps, you will be able to make your own homemade laundry soap. The beauty of it is, you can tweak it anyhow you want it. You can also add other ingredient to make toilet soap. The procedure below forms the basic procedure for making soap. Make sure you put on protective clothes, goggles, face mask and shoe to avoid corrosion caused by  lye.  Also, vinegar should be kept in case of accident. Simply apply vinegar to the area to neutralize the level of corrosion. The lye used in this procedure is Caustic soda ( known as NaOH in the laboratory). They are several oil you can use to make soap but the oil used in this recipe is palm kernel oil. So, you can also replace palm kernel oil if you wish. Click here to learn more on the principle behind soap making. Let's get cracking. 1. Preparation of caustic soda Dissolve 1kg of caustic soda in 3 litres of water and keep it for 43 hours. Check using hydromet

Determination of minerals in a sample

Minerals help the body to grow, develop, and stay healthy and perform many different functions - from building strong bones to transmitting nerve impulses. Some minerals are also used to make hormones or maintain a normal heart-beat. Minerals are also important components of various enzymes, haemoglobin, chlorophyll in plants and electron transport.

Safety rules in chemistry laboratory

Safety in the chemistry laboratory involves a cautious attitude and an awareness of potential hazards. Usually potential accidents can be anticipated and prevented. If safety precautions are followed, fewer accidents will occur. The number of laboratory accidents can be reduced if every student follows all of the direction given for the experiment and by the instructor. Special note should be taken of specific instructions that are given in an experiment to eliminate recognized potential hazards. Though the title carries Chemistry laboratory, some tips below can be used in most of the DIY post that involves chemicals.

How to make Morning Fresh liquid soap in Nigeria

Liquid soap is one of the simplest soaps to make. Once measured, the steps are very clear and concise. The liquid soap below is made in 5 litres. You can increase yours by multiplying each measurement by the numbers of litres you want to make. Since there's a huge demand for the purchase of the ingredients needed for making liquid soap, sellers of liquid soap ingredients have the measurement already. The most popular brand name in Nigeria is called " Morning fresh". The time has come where you have to do it yourself and save alot of cost. The ingredients will be listed and explained so that you know the functions of each chemical in case of necessity.

How to Make Hypo/Jik Bleach

Bleach is a laundry agent that is used for whitening clothes especially white, for stain removal and can be used as  disinfectant in toilets and bathrooms. Bleach can also be used for designing shirts to our desire. This is done by applying bleach at specific areas and then rinsing it with water Click here  to learn more. Bleach can also be used as a cure for nail and toes fungi click here to learn more. Bleach has different brand names such as Jik and Hypo etc.   

Ash/Moisture Content Determination

Ash content determination Ash content of material represents inorganic residue remaining after destruction of organic matter, which is generally considered equivalent to the mineral content. However, high ash content in some cases suggest the presence of adulterants.

Protein Determination

Total nitrogen in the samples may be estimated by conventional Micro – Kjeldahl method. Multiply nitrogen contents with suitable factor to calculate crude protein content.  Generally, 16% nitrogen is present in proteins. So 100/16 = 6.25 factor may be used to convert nitrogen content to protein. If nitrogen content in protein in a particular crop is more, value of the factor will be low. So, factor for conversion of nitrogen to crude protein varies from crop to crop. Nitrogen present in proteins or other organic compounds reacts with sulphuric acid during digestion and release ammonia, which may be trapped in boric acid or dilute sulphuric acid. Thus nitrogen content may be quantified by titrating it with standard acid or alkali.

Determination of Crude Lipid

Crude fat is the term used to refer the crude mixture of fat- soluble material present in a sample. It is also known as the ether extract or the free lipid content and is the traditional measure of fat in food products. The common approach for total crude fat determination is based on the solubility of lipids in non-polar organic solvents such as hexane, diethyl ether, acetone.

Preparation of Reagent In Laboratory

Before discussing the procedure for the preparation of reagent, it is pertinent that we are familiar with the measurement system. The mass of a body is defined as the quantity of matter contained in the body and is expressed in kilogramme (kg) while volume is the amount of space occupied by a substance and is expressed in cubic metres (m) smaller units of mass such as grammes (g) and smaller units of volume such as cubic centimeter (cm3) or ml are also used.